►Gorbyte Introduction (White Paper)
►Gorbyte Technical Summary (White Paper)
Anonymity: In un-permissioned public crypto-networks, anonymity is the ability to hide the identification of its users. Under the guise of user privacy, anonymity may be an excuse for hiding money laundering or other illegal sources of funds being exchanged into a digital currency. See also Identification.
Appreciation: The acquisition of value in a currency. Currency appreciation (or deflation) is the opposite of currency devaluation (or inflation). Appreciation occurs mainly through increased currency demand. Appreciation also occurs when basegors are destroyed, for example for the purpose of sharing the proceeds from fees paid for the execution of general distributed applications (GApps).
basegors (base gors): Not to be confused with Gors (the rebased Gorbyte currency that users see in their wallets – see also: Elasticity). Basegors are created in the origin Gorbyte Block and are used as a unit of value in transactions and thus recorded on the blockchain.
Block: A series of transactions (Tx’s) describing a financial operation, a log, or an object of a distributed application. Transactions are stored in the blockchain. Blocks are not normally shared between G-nodes. They are shared only during initialization and synchronization of nodes.
Block period: The period of time that includes the time for assembling transactions into the current block and reaching a consensus agreement about the block, before the next block can start being assembled.
Blockchain: A series of assembled blocks permanently stored in a node’s database, replicated on each node of the Gorbyte network, and unchangeable (i.e. if it is changed it can be proven invalid).
BRDG device: A wearable BRUD device. It acts as a G-node, contains a blockchain replica, securely manages encryption keys, allows for unique identification of the user, includes user biometrics, acts as a hardware wallet, allows for superconnectivity and is tamper-proof.
BRUD device: A Blockchain-Registered Unique Device. A virtual unit, or a hardware device. It is used, among other purposes, to uniquely identify nodes and prevent Sybil, DoS and majority attacks. A hardware BRUD device is called a crypto-device. (See “The BRUD architecture” document).
Client software: The Gorbyte software (or code) that implements a node and runs in a user device connected to the internet. See GCC. Also called the “Reference Client implementation”.
Consensus: The process or mechanism by which a majority agreement is reached regarding the exact composition of a Block to be stored in each node’s Blockchain.
Cryptocurrency: The native digital currency of a crypto-network such as Gorbyte, Ethereum, Bitcoin, etc. It does not need a smart contract or another crypto-network to be usable.
Crypto-device: A device compatible with the Gorbyte BRUD Architecture that: a) Has built-in hardware security for encryption, device keys, and user wallet; b) Operates as a full node of the crypto-network; c) Is tamper-proof; d) Includes live biometrics; and e) Holds a replica of the blockchain.
Crypto-network: A computer network that is able to maintain secure replicated data in its nodes, despite an unreliable and insecure communication environment. It can be decentralized but permissioned, or distributed and unpermissioned. It can be proprietary, or public (open source). The Gorbyte network is public and unpermissioned.
DApps: Dapps are a limited set of distributed applications (Smart Contracts). They are objects stored, running, and producing results strictly on the blockchain.
Decentralized: A concept in computer networks describing a system where most or all aspects of network management and control are shared by multiple nodes, in contrast with a single host, as in star networks. The term also applies to decentralized ledgers and permissioned crypto-networks, where a set of trusted nodes perform transaction verification, and have privileges with respect to other nodes.
Denial of Service (DoS) attack: An attack on the network by a malicious person or gorup with the intent of disrupting the network. The attacker finds a way to generate packets, transactions or messages on the network that generate load on the network without the attacker being penalized.
Devaluation: The loss of value in a currency. Currency devaluation (or inflation) occurs when new currency is created. In Gorbyte no new basic currency (basegors) is ever created. A currency also loses value with diminished currency demand. The opposite of “Appreciation”.
Digital currency: A digital representation of a scarce asset, such as a precious metal. With the advent of crypto-networks, the scarce asset can be a coin generated by a crypto-network and tallied in a decentralized or distributed ledger. In this case it is called a cryptocurrency.
Distributed: A concept in computer networks describing a system where all nodes are peers. No paricular node has control of the network, or has higher privileges, or performs unique functions. The term also applies to distributed ledgers and unpermissioned crypto-networks, where there are no “trusted” nodes, but all nodes perform transaction verification and contribute to the security of the network.
DOE: The Distributed Operating Environment created by Gorbyte for running distributed applications on the blockchain. It consists of the fundamental building blocks needed to support any distributed application: Communication, addressability and identification of the players in a distributed application, guaranteed replication of data, and security.
Elasticity: The dynamic process of currency re-basing form basegors to Gors. This allows for the dynamic change in the number of Gors in people’s wallets, thus maintaining the value of individual Gors stable during periods of high demand. Stability of the currency value allows for a wider use of the currency, as prices are stabilized.
Environs: The logical subset of peer G-nodes that, at one moment in time, have at the center the originator of an SFI broadcast message. Environs (Logical neighborhoods) are perceived differently according to one’s point of view. Each G-node tries to avoid clusters of its nei-peers within its logical environs.
Fork (forking): In Gorbyte there are no forks and there is no forking mechanism by design. Block composition and addition to the blockchain is synchronous among all nodes. In other cryptonetworks, involuntary forks can occur frequently as competing nodes may temporarily prepare a different sequence of blocks when trying to determine the next block to be added to the blockchain. Do not confuse these involuntary forks with voluntary ones (See: Soft fork and Hard fork).
GApps: GApps are general distributed application that can use the blockchain, but run off-the-blockchain. GApps can do most of their processing, interaction, data manipulation, and data storage off-the-blockchain.
GCC: The Gorbyte Crypto-network Client software (or code), implementing the protocols and mechanisms of the Gorbyte network (above the internet network layer). Also called the “Reference Client implementation”.
G-node (Gorbyte node): A node of the Gorbyte crypto-network identifiable by an address generated by the GCC and associated to a user's BRUD device. It may be temporarily associated to an IP address.
Gorbyte (Gorbyte network): The Gorbyte crypto-network is a distributed, peer-to-peer, secure, open system allowing clients to use distributed processing services. Participation to the Gorbyte project requires a connection to the internet, a working copy of the GCC software and a Virtual BRUD software or a BRUD device.
Gorbyte money supply: The total number of basegors in circulation. There is no mechanism in Gorbyte for creating new basegors. However, basegors can be destroyed or lost.
Gorbyte node: See: G-node.
Gors: A rebased digital representation of the currency value in a user wallet. The currency value traded between users. It is calculated (re-based) from basegors associated to unspent outputs of addresses in a user’s wallet. The dynamic re-basing of Gors allows for elasticity of the Gorbyte currency.
GRBT Tokens: ERC-20 Tokens issued to raise funds for the Gorbyte project. GSBT Tokens will be converted at par to Gors at lauch.
Hard fork: In Gorbyte there is no forking mechanism by design (See Fork). In other crypto-networks, a voluntary fork is created when a modification is made to the node client code that causes a divergence in the blockchain. A hard fork is used to create a new desired blockchain different from the current blockchain. In this case a number of nodes may not agree to the change and the crypto-network splits into two.
Identification: The unique identification of nodes, devices and users provided in Gorbyte by its BRUD devices. Unique identification does not use names, IDs, passwords or other forms of authentication and does not compromise user privacy. The unique identification of nodes allows for preventing attacks to the network before they become a threat. The unique identification of the owners of BRUD devices allows for many features that would not be possible in anonymous crypto-networks, such as polling, interest bearing savings accounts and identification of the players in a distributed application.
Majority attack: An attack on the network by a malicious person or gorup with the intent of stealing the assets of the blockchain. To mount such an attack the makority of the network nodes need to be participating, either voluntarily, or because the control of their node has been taken over by the attacker.
MARPLE: A Majority Agreement Recursive Protocol based on Logical Environs. Gorbyte’s distributed consensus protocol. The most fundamental innovation in Gorbyte, allowing scalability, throughput, reduction of network operation costs to zero and a business model providing no-cost basic transactions.
Nei-peer G-node: A G-node of the Gorbyte crypto-network to which a user node is connected (has a session with) and is part of the node’s logical environs.
Network cost: The cost of operating a crypto-network. It includes the rewards to miners, in PoW networks, or to validators, in PoS and other systems. It also includes the fees collected by miners and validators for verifying transactions and assembling them into blocks. These network operation costs are avoided in Gorbyte, as the verification of transactions is performed by all nodes, in exchange of services.
Node (Gorbyte node): See G-node.
Node address: A standard address (i.e., a hash of a user’s public key) generated by the user for the purpose of temporarily identifying a G-node. It is associated to a BRUD device at the time of session establishment.
Peer node: A node of the Gorbyte crypto-network.
Random network: The concept behind the Gorbyte network that allows for its distributed consensus process. A logical network built on top of the internet and consisting of physically distant G-nodes randomly connected through sessions. Each G-node directly communicates to its nei-peers. The set of nei-peers of one node is that node’s logical environs.
Reference implementation: A copy of the specifications, open source code, and downloadables provided for reference.
Session: A random relation established between two physically distant G-nodes for the purpose of exchanging datagrams, transactions and MARPLE messages over underlying communication layers. A G-node and those peer nodes with which it has a session with, defines a logical environs.
Smart contract: An object on the blockchain that executes the terms of a contract. An Ethereum smart contract is a computer program addressable by its hash. It executes on the blockchain according to transactions issued to it by its owners. The output of a smart contract may be financial transactions or transactions sent as input to other smart contracts.
Soft fork: In Gorbyte there is no forking mechanism by design (See Fork). In other crypto-networks, a voluntary fork is created when a modification is made to the node client code that causes a divergence in the blockchain. In order for a soft fork to work, a majority of the nodes needs to be running a client code recognizing the fork. Nodes that did not upgrade are ignored.
Summary block: Summary Blocks are those block with a block number ending with a number of zero bits, that determines the summary period’s length (for example, 10 zero bits, for 1024 blocks).
Summary period: A summary period is the period of time between two summary blocks.
Superconnectivity: The ability of crypto-devices to dynamically meet through Wi-Fi and verify each other by reading their own replica of the blockchain without executing transactions on the blockchain. This allows for maximum scalability: An unlimited number of devices, can interact at the same time with the blockchain. Each device, within their continuously variable WiFi bubble, can interact with other IoT crypto-devices, without causing a load on the blockchain.
Sybil attack: An attack on the network by a malicious person with the intent of stealing the assets of the blockchain. To mount such an attack the attacker simulates enough nodes on the network to affect decisions that are normally taken by the majority of nodes or to affect the probability of being chosen as the node broadcasting the new block.
Token: A digital asset holder, defined by a smart contract. It depends on a crypto-network supporting smart contracts to operate. The asset represented by the token can be a digital currency.
Transaction: One type of message that is broadcast among Gorbyte peer nodes. The most basic type of transactions, from the user’s point of view, are financial transactions.